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  • Главная » 2014 » Август » 31 » Traditional Chinese medicine TCM 中医学
    22:11:49
    Traditional Chinese medicine TCM 中医学

    Traditional Chinese medicine.

     (also known as TCM, Simplified Chinese: 中医学; Traditional Chinese: 中醫學; pinyin: zhōngyī xué) is a range of traditional medical practices originating in China that developed over several thousand years. The English phrase "TCM" was created in the 1950s by the PRC in order to export Chinese medicine; there is no equivalent phrase in Chinese (zhōngyī xué translates literally as simply "Chinese medicine studies"). In fact, TCM is a modern compilation of traditional Chinese medicine. TCM practices include theories, diagnosis and treatments such as herbal medicine, acupuncture and massage; often Qigong is also strongly affiliated with TCM. TCM is a form of so-called Oriental medicine, which includes other traditional East Asian medical systems such as traditional Japanese, and Korean medicine.

    TCM theory asserts that processes of the human body are interrelated and in constant interaction with the environment. Signs of disharmony help the TCM practitioner to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease.

     

    TCM theory is based on a number of philosophical frameworks including the theory of Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system, Zang Fu organ theory, and others. Diagnosis and treatment are conducted with reference to these concepts. TCM does not operate within a scientific paradigm but some practitioners make efforts to bring practices into a biomedical and evidence-based medicine framework

    Категория: Лечение в Китае | Просмотров: 731 | Добавил: karustanya | Теги: Nanmunan 2014, Traditional Chinese medicine TCM, Traditional Chinese medicine, Китай, 中医学, китайская медицина, Traditional Chinese medicine TCM 中医, TCM | Рейтинг: 5.0/1
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    Much of thephilosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from the same philosophical
    bases that contributed to the development of Daoist philosophy, and reflects
    the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express
    causative principles effective in the environment at all scales.During thegolden age of his reign from 2698 to 2596 B.C.E., as a result of a dialogue
    with his minister Ch'i Pai (岐伯), the Yellow Emperor is supposed by Chinese tradition to have composedhis Neijing Suwen (內經 素問) or Basic Questions of Internal Medicine, also known as the HuangdiNeijing. Modern scholarly opinion holds that the extant text of this titlewas compiled by an anonymous scholar no earlier than the Han Dynasty just over
    two-thousand years ago.During theHan dynasty, Zhang Zhong Jing (張仲景), the Hippocrates of China, who was mayor of Chang-sha toward the endof the second century C.E., wrote a Treatise on Cold Damage, whichcontains the earliest known reference to Neijing Suwen. The Jin dynastypractitioner and advocate of acupuncture and moxibustion, Huang-fu Mi (215 -
    282 C.E.), also quoted the Yellow Emperor in his Jia Yi Jing (甲乙經), ca. 265 C.E. During the Tangdynasty, Wang Ping claimed to have located a copy of the originals of the NeijingSuwen, which he expanded and edited substantially. This work was revisitedby an imperial commission during the eleventh century.ClassicalChinese Medicine (CCM) is notably different from Traditional Chinese Medicine
    (TCM). The Nationalist government elected to abandon and outlaw the practice of
    CCM as it did not want China to be left behind by scientific progress. For 30
    years, CCM was forbidden in China and several people were prosecuted by the
    government for engaging in CCM. In the 1960s, Mao Zedong finally decided that
    the government could not continue to outlaw the use of CCM. He commissioned the
    top ten doctors (M.D.s) to make a survey of CCM and create a standardized
    format for its application. This standardized form is now known as TCM.Today, TCMis what is taught in nearly all those medical schools in China, most of Asia
    and North America, that teach traditional medical practices at all. To learn
    CCM typically one must be part of a family lineage of medicine. Recently, there
    has been a resurgence in interest in CCM in China, Europe and United States, as
    a specialty.Contactwith Western culture and medicine has not displaced TCM. While there may be
    traditional factors involved in the persistent practice, two reasons are most
    obvious in the westward spread of TCM in recent decades. Firstly, TCM practices
    are believed by many to be very effective, sometimes offering palliative
    efficacy where the best practices of Western medicine fail, especially for
    routine ailments such as flu and allergies, and managing to avoid the toxicity
    of some chemically composed medicines. Secondly, TCM provides the only care
    available to ill people, when they cannot afford to try the western option. On
    the other hand, there is, for example, no longer a distinct branch of Chinese
    physics or Chinese biology.TCM formedpart of the barefoot doctor program in the People's Republic of China, which
    extended public health into rural areas. It is also cheaper to the PRC
    government, because the cost of training a TCM practitioner and staffing a TCM
    hospital is considerably less than that of a practitioner of Western medicine;
    hence TCM has been seen as an integral part of extending health services in
    China.There issome notion that TCM requires supernatural forces or even cosmology to explain
    itself. However most historical accounts of the system will acknowledge it was
    invented by a culture of people that were already tired of listening to shamans
    trying to explain illnesses on evil spirits; any reference to supernatural
    forces is usually the result of romantic translations or poor understanding and
    will not be found in the Daoist-inspired classics of acupuncture such as the
    Nèi Jīng or Zhēnjiǔ Dàchéng. The system's development has over its history been
    skeptically analyzed extensively, and practice and development of it has waxed
    and waned over the centuries and cultures which it has traveled - yet the
    system has still survived this far. It is true that the focus from the
    beginning has been on pragmatism, not necessarily understanding of the
    mechanisms of the actions - and that this has hindered its modern acceptance in
    the West. This, despite that there were times such as the early eighteenth
    century when "acupuncture and moxa were a matter of course inpolite European society»

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